New Jersey & New York Real Estate Attorneys

Real Estate SYndications

Real Estate Syndications and Limited Partnerships

Syndicated real estate and limited partnerships are strategic investment vehicles that enable multiple investors to combine their resources to fund large-scale real estate projects. This collaborative approach makes it possible to invest in high-value properties that might be inaccessible to individual investors due to financial constraints. By pooling funds, investors can share the risks and rewards associated with the investment, leading to a more diversified and potentially profitable portfolio. Moreover, syndications can offer access to a broader range of investment opportunities, including commercial properties, multi-family units, and development projects.

Importance of Compliance in Syndicated Real Estate Investments

Compliance is a cornerstone of successful syndicated real estate investments. Whether you are raising money from friends, family, or accredited investors, adherence to legal and regulatory requirements is paramount. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other regulatory bodies impose strict guidelines to protect investors and maintain market integrity. Non-compliance can result in severe consequences, including hefty fines, sanctions, and reputational damage.

In some cases, even seemingly innocent actions like posting about the investment opportunity on social media or offering it to family members can lead to penalties from the SEC, as such actions can be construed as public offerings, which are subject to stringent regulatory requirements and oversight.

Ensuring compliance involves thorough documentation, transparent communication with investors, and diligent adherence to federal and state securities laws.

Typical Syndication Structure

Sponsor/General Partner

The sponsor or general partner is responsible for managing the investment. Their duties include sourcing and acquiring the property, securing financing, managing day-to-day operations, and ultimately executing the project’s business plan. The sponsor typically invests a portion of their own capital to align interests with limited partners.

Limited Partners

Limited partners are the investors who contribute capital to the syndication but have limited liability. They are not involved in the daily management of the investment. Their primary role is to provide the necessary funding, and in return, they receive a share of the profits.

Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)

To facilitate the syndication, a special purpose vehicle, often structured as a limited partnership or a limited liability company (LLC), is created. The SPV holds the investment and provides a clear framework for governance, profit distribution, and liability protection.

Required Legal Documents and SEC Filings

Creating a legally compliant syndication involves meticulous preparation of several key documents. Some of the essential documents required to start a syndication include the Private Placement Memorandum (PPM), Operating Agreement, and Subscription Agreement. Additionally, depending on the syndication’s structure and scope, various SEC filings, such as Form D, may also be necessary. These documents ensure that the syndication adheres to all applicable legal and regulatory requirements, protecting the interests of both the syndicators and the investors.

  • Private Placement Memorandum (PPM): The PPM provides a comprehensive overview of the investment opportunity, including the business plan, risks, terms, and conditions. It serves as a critical disclosure document to potential investors.
  • Operating Agreement: This document outlines the operational framework of the syndication, detailing the roles and responsibilities of the general and limited partners, as well as the profit-sharing arrangements.
  • Subscription Agreement: The subscription agreement formalizes the investment commitment between the syndicate and individual investors. It specifies the investment amount, investor qualifications, and terms of the investment.

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SEC Compliance and Filings

Depending on the syndication’s structure and scope, various SEC filings, such as Form D, may be required. These filings ensure compliance with federal securities laws and provide essential information to regulators and investors. Proper SEC filings are critical for maintaining transparency and protecting the interests of all parties involved in the syndication.

Form D and Regulations

Form D is required for offerings made under Regulation D, which includes Rules 504, 506(b), and 506(c). Form D is a notice of an exempt offering of securities, which must be filed with the SEC by companies that rely on Regulation D exemptions. This form provides basic information about the company and the offering, including the names and addresses of the company’s executive officers and directors, the type of securities being offered, and the total amount of the offering. Filing Form D is mandatory to qualify for the exemption, and it must be filed within 15 days after the first sale of securities in the offering.

  • Rule 504: Allows companies to offer and sell up to $10 million of securities in a 12-month period. This rule does not restrict the number or type of investors, meaning both accredited and non-accredited investors can participate. However, certain states might impose additional limitations on non-accredited investors.
  • Rule 506(b): Allows an unlimited amount of capital to be raised and permits up to 35 non-accredited but sophisticated investors, along with an unlimited number of accredited investors. Companies must provide detailed disclosure documents to non-accredited investors, similar to what is required in registered offerings.
  • Rule 506(c): Allows general solicitation and advertising of the offering but restricts sales strictly to accredited investors. Issuers must take reasonable steps to verify that all investors are accredited, and simply relying on investor self-certification is not sufficient.

Accredited Investors and Verification Requirements

Under Regulation D, an accredited investor is defined as an individual with a net worth exceeding $1 million (excluding their primary residence) or with an annual income of over $200,000 (or $300,000 with a spouse) for the last two years, with an expectation of the same income level in the current year.

Verification Requirements (Rule 506(c))

For offerings under Rule 506(c), the issuer (or syndicator) must take reasonable steps to verify that each investor is accredited. This can include reviewing financial documents such as tax returns, bank and brokerage statements, or obtaining written confirmation from a third party such as a registered broker-dealer, attorney, or certified public accountant.

Importance of Compliance

Strict adherence to these rules is crucial. Non-compliance can result in the loss of the Regulation D exemption, making the offering subject to full registration under the Securities Act of 1933. This can lead to significant legal and financial consequences, including fines, penalties, and the potential requirement to return funds to investors.

Additional SEC Filings

Beyond Form D, other SEC filings might be necessary depending on the specifics of the syndication:

  • Regulation A Filings: For larger offerings, Regulation A allows companies to raise up to $75 million in a 12-month period. This requires filing an offering statement on Form 1-A, which includes financial statements and other significant details about the company and the offering.
  • Regulation S Filings: If the syndication involves international investors, Regulation S may apply. This regulation provides safe harbor for offers and sales of securities outside the United States. Filings under this regulation ensure compliance with U.S. securities laws while accommodating international transactions.
  • Regulation CF Filings: For smaller offerings, Regulation Crowdfunding (Regulation CF) allows companies to raise up to $5 million in a 12-month period through online platforms. This requires filing Form C, which includes financial statements, details about the offering, and information about the company’s business and management.

State Filings

In addition to federal filings, state securities regulations, often referred to as “Blue Sky Laws,” may require further documentation and filing. Each state has its own requirements for securities offerings, and compliance with these laws is essential to legally offer and sell securities within the state. Failure to comply with state regulations can result in penalties and restrictions on the ability to raise capital in those states.

Importance of Timely and Accurate Filings

Timely and accurate filings are crucial to maintain compliance and protect the syndication from legal repercussions. Inaccurate or late filings can trigger investigations, fines, and other penalties from regulatory authorities. Therefore, it is essential to work with experienced legal counsel to ensure all filings are completed correctly and submitted on time.

Exit Strategies

Successful real estate syndications are built with clear exit strategies to ensure liquidity and return on investment. Having well-defined exit strategies is crucial for managing investor expectations and achieving the financial goals of the syndication and its investors. Here are some of the most common exit strategies:

Sale of the Property

One of the most straightforward exit strategies involves selling the property at a strategically advantageous time to maximize returns. This approach can provide a lump-sum return to investors, making it a popular choice for syndications looking to realize gains quickly. The key to this strategy is timing the sale to align with favorable market conditions, which can significantly enhance the profitability of the investment. Additionally, a well-timed sale can help avoid potential market downturns, thereby protecting investor capital.


Refinancing the property allows the syndication to return capital to investors while retaining ownership of the asset. This strategy involves securing a new loan to replace the existing mortgage, often at more favorable terms or after the property has appreciated in value. By doing so, the syndication can extract some of the equity built up in the property and distribute it to investors, providing them with a partial return on their investment without having to sell the property. Refinancing can also reduce monthly debt service payments, thereby increasing cash flow and the potential for ongoing income.

Partial Sale

In some cases, a syndication may choose to sell a portion of the property or the equity in the property to another investor. This can provide immediate liquidity while still maintaining a stake in the property and benefiting from its continued appreciation and income generation. Partial sales can be an effective way to balance the need for liquidity with the desire to remain invested in a profitable asset.

Holding for Long-Term Income

Some syndications may opt to hold the property for an extended period to benefit from ongoing rental income and long-term appreciation. This strategy requires a stable property with strong cash flow and the ability to weather market fluctuations. Holding the property long-term can be especially appealing in markets with strong growth potential, providing a steady income stream and the opportunity for significant capital appreciation over time.

The Importance of Legal Guidance

Engaging an experienced attorney from the inception of your real estate syndication is essential. At Milvidskiy Law Group P.C., we provide comprehensive legal services to ensure your syndication is structured correctly and complies with all applicable laws. Our services include:

  • Drafting and Reviewing Legal Documents: We prepare and review all necessary legal documents to ensure clarity, compliance, and protection for all parties involved.
  • Ensuring Compliance with SEC Regulations: We navigate the complexities of SEC regulations, ensuring all filings and disclosures are timely and accurate.
  • Advising on Risk Management and Mitigation: We provide strategic advice to identify and mitigate potential risks, safeguarding your investment.
  • Facilitating Legally Sound Exit Strategies: We help design and implement exit strategies that align with your investment goals and legal requirements.

With Milvidskiy Law Group P.C., you can navigate the complexities of syndicated real estate investments with confidence, ensuring your project’s success and protecting your interests at every stage.

Contact Us

To learn more about how we can assist with your syndicated real estate investments and limited partnerships, contact Milvidskiy Law Group P.C. today. Our team of experienced attorneys is ready to provide the legal support you need to achieve your real estate investment goals. Schedule a consultation today to discuss your specific needs and explore how we can help you succeed.

Frequently Asked Questions

Real estate syndication is a partnership between investors to pool their capital and expertise to acquire, manage, and profit from real estate properties. Typically, syndications involve a syndicator or sponsor who identifies and manages the investment, while passive investors provide the capital.

Real estate syndications often use structures such as limited partnerships (LPs) or limited liability companies (LLCs). In these structures, the syndicator acts as the general partner (GP) or managing member, and the investors are limited partners (LPs) or passive members.

Real estate syndications must comply with federal securities laws, particularly Regulation D of the Securities Act of 1933. Commonly used exemptions include Rule 506(b) and Rule 506(c), which allow the syndicator to raise capital without registering the offering with the SEC, provided certain conditions are met.

Non-compliance with SEC regulations can result in severe consequences, including fines, penalties, and legal action by the SEC. Additionally, investors may have the right to rescind their investment, forcing the syndicator to return the invested funds, which could be financially devastating.

An accredited investor is defined by the SEC as an individual or entity that meets specific financial criteria. For individuals, this generally means having a net worth exceeding $1 million (excluding primary residence) or an annual income of over $200,000 ($300,000 for joint income) in the last two years with the expectation of the same income level in the current year.

Under Rule 506(c), syndicators must take reasonable steps to verify the accredited investor status of their investors. This can include reviewing documentation such as tax returns, bank statements, or obtaining written confirmation from a licensed professional, such as an attorney or CPA. Rule 506(b) does not require verification but limits the number of non-accredited investors to 35, who must be sophisticated.

The syndicator is responsible for identifying and acquiring the property, securing financing, managing the investment, and ensuring compliance with all legal and regulatory requirements. They are also tasked with communicating regularly with investors and distributing profits according to the syndication agreement.

Returns in a real estate syndication are usually distributed according to the terms outlined in the syndication agreement. This typically includes a preferred return to investors, followed by a split of any additional profits between the investors and the syndicator, often referred to as the “promote” or “carried interest.”

Real estate syndications carry several risks, including market risk, property management risk, and financial risk. Market risk involves changes in the real estate market that could affect property values and rental income. Property management risk pertains to the effectiveness of the syndicator’s management. Financial risk includes the possibility of the syndication not generating the expected returns, which could result in financial losses for investors.

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